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Question 1Define the concept of  vicarious reinforcement and give a concrete classroom example to illustrate its effects on students’ behavior.
Question 2 Three of the following experiences should promote higher self-efficacy about the task in question. Which one probably  won’t?
On the first day of geometry, Bob’s teacher tells the class, “The things in your textbook may look difficult to you now, but with a little effort and practice you’ll have the basics down pat by December.”
Carmella does better in her Spanish class than she expected to.
Andrea discovers that she does well on her weekly spelling tests only when she wears her lucky necklace.
Dick’s friend tells him, “You shouldn’t have any problem in American Literature. I’m no smarter than you are, and I got an A.”
Question 3Social cognitive theory can best be characterized as being concerned with learning:
from a sociological rather than psychological perspective.
socially appropriate behaviors.
through observations of others.
communication skills.
Question 4As he writes a capital J on the board, Mr. Anson tells his kindergartners, “To write a capital J, you make a fishhook with a line across the top.” The primary reason that Mr. Anson is a successful model for his students in this situation is that he is:
describing what he is doing as he demonstrates, using language students are likely to remember.
demonstrating how to write the letter, so that even students who can’t write yet can observe.
friendly and encouraging every student to do his or her best.
making sure that all students are closely paying attention to what he’s doing.
Question 5Mr. Limpitlaw wants to increase his female students’ self-efficacy for mastering simple car maintenance procedures. He can best do this by:
having the students watch other girls successfully change the oil and the air filter.
having the students read a book with clear, step-by-step instructions for changing the oil and the air filter.
describing how easily he learned these things when he was their age.
presenting a film that shows an experienced auto mechanic at work.
Question 6From the perspective of social cognitive theory, why might inner-city African American students learn more from an African American model who grew up in poverty than from a model of a different race or background?
Because the African American model is more likely to understand students from every social class
Because the students are more likely to perceive the African American model as being competent
Because the students will view the African American model’s behavior as being applicable to their own situation
Because the students are more likely to realize that the African American model has prestige
Question 7If we consider the concept of  reciprocal causation, we must conclude that the quality of students’ classroom experiences is influenced:
primarily by how students think about classroom material.
primarily by what teachers do in the classroom.
both by classroom events and by what students themselves do.
largely by things that have happened to students in the past.
Question 8On average, self-regulated learners tend to:
perform better on a continuous reinforcement schedule than on an intermittent reinforcement schedule.
achieve at higher levels in the classroom.
be less interested in extracurricular activities than their classmates.
require more of a teacher’s time and attention than do other students, but this time and attention is a good investment over the long run.
Question 9According to social cognitive theorists, reinforcement affects learning because it:
makes students feel good, thereby eliminating any emotions that might interfere with the learning process.
strengthens stimulus-response connections.
reduces the likelihood of punishment.
encourages students to pay attention.
Question 10Maria is what social cognitive theorists would describe as a  self-regulating person when it comes to her moral behavior. Given this information, which one of the following descriptions best describes Maria’s moral behavior?
She has an internal set of standards regarding right and wrong behavior, and she feels guilty when she violates those standards.
She behaves in morally appropriate ways only when she thinks other people are watching her.
She has an internal set of standards regarding right and wrong, but those standards seldom influence the way she actually behaves.
She works for social incentives; for example, she contributes to charity if she thinks that other people will like her better for doing so.
Question 11 Social cognitive theorists tell us that students are most likely to work for goals that:
they have chosen for themselves.
their parents have set for them.
their teachers have set for them.
their peers impose on them.


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